WHAT IS COOLING ?
Cooling is the transfer of heat from one place to another, keeping the temperature in that place at a temperature below the ambient temperature. In short, cooling = heat extraction process. Cooling is done for 3 purposes.
1-Comfort, 2-Cold storage, 3-Industrial operations
The cooling process is used for air conditioning between ambient temperature (up to 30 °C) and 1 °C, for commercial purposes between 10 °C and -40 °C for cold storage, and for industrial purposes at various temperatures. Cooling below -40 °C is called cryogenic cooling. One of the most important needs of these is a comfortable environment. For this, a temperature below the ambient temperature in summer is required, which is provided by cooling machines.
The Chinese used cooling for the first time in the history of human existence. They crushed the ice of the frozen lakes and threw them into large wells and used them by removing the compressed ice patterns in the summer. The Romans and Greeks filled large jars with water and buried them in the ground. When people unwittingly wrapped a wet cloth around the water jugs they carried, they found that the water inside became cold or the cut watermelon became cold when left in the sun, and as a result, efforts to cool the food materials or the environment began.
In 1775, Glasgow University professor William Cullen saw that his hand became cool when he applied ether to his hand and started working and laid the foundation of the first mechanical cooling. William Cullen built an ice maker based on the suction principle in 1775, based on chance. Many scientists made ice machines with this principle, but they did not enter the industry because they were too expensive and large in size. In 1834, an American engineer named Jacob Perkins developed a practical ice maker in London. Ice machines operating with this principle have been put into use for thirty years. In 1885, the French Ferdinand CARSE invented the absorption system. In 1886, WINDHUSEN developed the installation working with carbon dioxide gas and reached -80 degrees. Upon the developments, wooden refrigerators were built and the food was stored with ice in the houses. Since cooling with ice is very troublesome, scientists started to work on a mechanical cooling system. In 1910, J.M. The first small refrigerator was made by the Larsen Company. However, since there was no thermostat, great difficulties were experienced in its use. In 1913, KELVINATOR manufactured the first thermostatic cabinet and offered it for sale. In 1930, R-12 gas was found and the foundation of CFC refrigerants was laid. In 1935, R-22 refrigerant was found and HCFC-based fluids were developed. In 1989, R-134 A and R-123 refrigerants were found and HFC-based fluids that do not harm the ozone layer were developed. In the early 1990s, binary and triple alternative refrigerant mixtures were developed to replace R-22 and R-502. Since 1913, refrigeration technology has been constantly developing and has become an invariable part of life in today’s environment.
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